Center for Technology and National Security Policy, National Defense University

Experts have been warning of the threat of a biological attack on the United States for many
years. In the aftermath of the 2001 anthrax release, various agencies within the Federal
government initiated a series of programs intended to prevent incidents and ameliorate the
perceived threat. State and local first responders have also invested heavily in systems and
mechanisms for responding to an unanticipated disease outbreak. Private sector actors (hospitals,
doctors, vaccine providers, and others) have mobilized to enhance their readiness, resilience, and
capacity to respond. After nearly 10 years of political, legal and practical ferment, many have
recognized the need to take stock of our efforts thus far and to assess how effective they have

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