[1] U.S. Government Accountability Office, “Strengthening Department of Homeland Security Management Functions,” GAO–13–283, February 14, 2013, http://www.gao.gov/highrisk/strengthening_homeland_security/why_did_study (accessed January 22, 2015).

[2] Ibid.

[3] U.S. Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs, “Final Coburn Oversight Reform Finds Major Problems in DHS,” U.S. Senate Committee on HSGAC, January 3, 2015, www.hsgac.senate.gov/download/?id=B92B8382 (accessed January 22, 2015).

[4] Josh Hicks, “Morale is Abysmal at Homeland Security: Here’s What the Agency Is Doing about It,” The Washington Post, December 9, 2014, http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/federal-eye/wp/2014/12/09/morale-is-abysmal-at-homeland-security-heres-what-the-agency-plans-to-do/ (accessed January 22, 2015), and Jerry Markon, “DHS Morale Sinks Further Despite New Leadership at the Top, Survey Shows,” The Washington Post, October 10, 2014, http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/federal-eye/wp/2014/10/10/dhs-morale-problems-grow-worse-during-secretary-johnsons-brief-tenure/ (accessed January 22, 2015).

[5] Partnership for Public Service, “The Best Places to Work in the Federal Government: National Protection and Programs Directorate (DHS),” 2015, http://bestplacestowork.org/BPTW/rankings/detail/HS20 (accessed January 22, 2015).

[6] The Aspen Institute Justice & Society Program, “Task Force Report on Streamlining and Consolidating Congressional Oversight of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security,” September 2013, http://www.aspeninstitute.org/sites/default/files/content/docs/pubs/Sunnylands%20report%2009-11-13.pdf (accessed January 22, 2015).

[7] CSIS-BENS Task Force on Congressional Oversight of the Department of Homeland Security, “Untangling the Web: Congressional Oversight and the Department of Homeland Security,” Center for Security and International Studies/Business Executive for National Security (CSIS-BENS) White Paper, December 10, 2004, http://csis.org/files/media/csis/events/041210_dhs_tf_whitepaper.pdf (accessed January 26, 2015).

[8] “ICYMI: Homeland Security Experts Call for Reform of Congressional Oversight of DHS,” Bipartisan Policy Center, May 21, 2014, http://bipartisanpolicy.org/blog/experts-reform-congressional-oversight-dhs/ (accessed January 26, 2015).

[9] Homeland Security Policy Institute/Center for Cyber and Homeland Security as quoted in The Aspen Institute, “Task Force Report on Streamlining and Consolidating Congressional Oversight.”

[10] Norman J. Ornstein and Thomas E. Mann, “When Congress Checks Out,” Brookings Institution, November/December 2006, http://www.brookings.edu/research/opinions/2006/11/01governance-mann (accessed January 26, 2015).

[11] Jessica Zuckerman, “Politics Over Security: Homeland Security Congressional Oversight In Dire Need of Reform,” Heritage Foundation Issue Brief No. 3722, September 10, 2012, http://www.heritage.org/research/reports/2012/09/homeland-security-congressional-oversight-in-dire-need-of-reform, and Paul Rosenzweig, Jena Baker McNeill, and James Jay Carafano, “Stopping the Chaos: A Proposal for Reorganization of Congressional Oversight of the Department of Homeland Security,” Heritage Foundation WebMemo No. 3046, November 4, 2010, http://www.heritage.org/research/reports/2010/11/stopping-the-chaos-a-proposal-for-reorganization-of-congressional-oversight-of-dhs.  

[12] For example, in May 2012, the Secretary of Homeland Security modified the delegations of authority between the Management Directorate and its counterparts at the component level to clarify and strengthen the authorities of the Under Secretary for Management across the department.

[13] James Jay Carafano, Jessica Zuckerman, Matt A. Mayer, Paul Rosenzweig, and Brian Slattery, “The Second Quadrennial Homeland Security Review: Setting Priorities for the Next Four Years,” Heritage Foundation Backgrounder No. 2766, February 12, 2013, http://www.heritage.org/research/reports/2013/02/the-second-quadrennial-homeland-security-review-setting-priorities-for-the-next-four-years.  

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